Research Essay

Third Draft:

Introduction

My research topic is Gender in Death Penalty. When I look at the fact sheet table about the issue of death penalty, I notice that compare between women and men, there is less women been putted in death row. I argue that the reasons why there are less women been putted in execution. And also, It is important because people face the question that women and men get treat the same way (punishment) when they are in the same situation, and does the death penalty is fair in the case of gender difference. The major issue that I will be talk about are the amount of women and men who been putted in death row, and the general background reasons that less women get executed.

I think my topic is difficult to talk about because there are so many different cases I need to look into it; however, there are many research data in history that support my point of view. There are four areas that I am going to discuss in literature review: early female cases in executions, modern female cases in executions, mitigating female circumstances in death penalty status, and the jury in death penalty sentences. When I look it online, I found the website called Death Penalty Information Center. It provides me many information and history data. I see the research since 1973 to 2012, there are totals 8375 people be put in death sentence and only 178 are women. (Death Penalty Information Center, 2012) The research proves that the argument that gender bias is exist. I am not going to stand on any side, and I will offer both side ideas of should there be a gender bias in death sentence.

Literature Review

My research topic is gender bias in the death sentences. I am going to discuss in four areas: Early Female Executions, Current Female Executions, The Circumstances in Death Penalty Status, and Selecting the Jury in Death Sentences.

Early Female Cases in Executions

Comparing the early practice of executions to the modern executions, there is less female be putted in death row today. There is less than three percent of female executions in the beginning of the American Colonial period. The data shows that females hold 4.3 percent in all the execution in pre-1900, and there is only 0.6 percent females in all the execution in post-1900 executions. Since 1900, there have twenty states got female executions. And there are less and less states were having female executions start from pre-1500. It reduced to only five states are still having female executions in 1970: Arkansas, Florida, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Texas. In the data result, we clearly see that there is limited female cases in America Death Penalty system. (Victor, 2002)

Modern Female Cases in Executions

There are many female got executed because of the reason of slaves and witches in history, so people will want to understand the reason of current female execution cases.

In 2000, Christina Marie Riggs is the women got executed in Arkansas on May 2. She is the first women got executed in Arkansas since 1868. She killed her two kids and tried to suicide with  potassium chloride, which is a drug that can be use in lethal injection, but she failed on killing herself. In 2001, Wanda Jean Allen got executed in Oklahoma on January 11. She is the first black women got executed since 1953 in America. She killed her lesbian lover. However, she has been argued about being a mental retard by showing her IQ with the score of sixty-nine. (Victor, 2002) Most of the cases in modern female execution are about killing their husbands, kids, lovers. The female cases can be easily focus on national or international report or news. And also, because of the rare female cases in current execution, people cannot be rash to make any decisions.

Mitigating Female Circumstances in Death Penalty Status

There is a mitigating female circumstances in death penalty. The defendant who is trying to defend the murder get mitigated by being executed. The juries need to first decide whether the case is suitable to put into death sentence or not. And then, they have to think the crime’s circumstances and background information to see the murder need to get executed or life in prison. However, when the jury look at the circumstances, the gender bias is going to be role it. The common mitigating circumstance is the murder killing victim under emotional disturbance. (Elizabeth, 1991) In California state and Ohio state both are the mitigator by setting the common mitigating circumstance. The jury can also have the emotional disturbance between female and male (Victor, 2002). When we look at the cases, we can see that there are more female killed the victim under emotional disturbance than the male did.

The Jury in Death Penalty Sentences

The jury have to be neutral to be putted the murder in the death sentences. And there is a  prospective juror’s in the Supreme Courts in United States. Even though the jury need to read the oath that saying they will be balance in cases, unintentionally, there is a gender bias in Supreme Court. It can depend on the jury’s background: their viewpoint on the role of male and female, they should give mercy or not, the murder is going to commit murder again in future or not. In addition, the jury need to sign the certificate by showing they are not on any side of male or female (Death Penalty Informative Center 2012).

Analysis of the Issue

I think that the gender bias is difficult to avoid. In the literature review, we understand that even though jury read the oath or sign the certificate, the fact that there is less case of female execution compared to male. In my opinion, there is always not balance in gender bias because I understand that there are stereotypes that people already stuck in their mind. I set up the four sections in the literature review, and all the sections can lead people get more understanding of the gender bias in death penalty.

We can know that there is less female executions in the history. There is only 178 females out of 8375 total offenders got executed since 1973 to 2012. The big amount of total, but only few of the cases are female. In the scholarly paper Gendering the Death Penalty: Countering Sex Bias in a Masculine Sanctuary, professor Victor L. Streib talks about there are mostly case of witches and slaves in female execution in the history. In modern-day, female who get executed because they killed their lover, children, husband. It tells point that different timeline, the viewpoint and reasons of jury or people can change on female execution (Victor, 2002).

Even though people think that the gender bias is unfair; however, there are many facts proves the gender bias will keep existing in future. We know that there is less female criminal than male, and male criminal is usually more violences than the female. And also, because it is rare that female be put in death row, so the news, people, jury will be more focus on the cases. It makes the jury become more careful in female trial. In the ideas of stereotype can easily play in the trial: female is weak and need male to protect, male is strong and strict. When jury is looking through mitigating cases, they are can easily be gender bias their own viewpoint. It is difficult for juries to not avoid the gender bias in the female trial.

I learned that gender bias can never be disappeared. When we look at the mitigating circumstance, there is the state law that saying the murder get mitigate under emotional disturbance. And most of the female cases is the female murder kill victim under emotional disturbance. It seem like the law that protect female from execution. I also surprise by the female execution data in history. Before I have done this research, I never notice that gender bias is seriously issue in America. I believe that there were many female crimes in the world that murder someone; however, there are not many of them been putted into death row.

Conclusion

In the result, I think my research topic of gender bias is a difficult issue that people can never solve the problems, and it is also a judicial problem. In critical way to look at this issue, there is no balance in the female trial because the stereotype of women already stuck in people’s mind. The reason I want to talk about the gender bias is to make people around me to understand the issue better. The fact that more people talk about the issue, more people care about it. And another reason people should care about this topic because we are always trying to find the balance in the court. People should matter in each life, and not just care about gender differences; therefore, jury should look more at the cases itself and make fair decisions.

Bibliography

“What’s New." DPIC. Web. 16 May 2016.

Death Penalty Informative Center is a really great resource. It contains many unbiased informations, and also it is a trustworthy website! It has data that I can easily understand how gender bias in the death penalty. This website not only helps me to look into cases but also gives me more knowledges about death penalty argument. I think the website can lead me to write a good paper by providing many information and data from history. It is a useful resource.

Rapaport, Elizabeth. Law and Society Review Web. 1991.                                                                                 http://dspace.unm.edu/bitstream/handle/ 1928/20497/Rapaport-                                                       %20Death%20penalty%20and%20Gender%20Disc.pdf? sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Law and Society Review is a scholar paper by Rapport, Elizabeth. She demonstrates the process of death penalty and how the gender bias appear in it. The paper is well organize and gives me a better understanding on my topic. I think her research can help me to do my literature review because she explains the each term in a easy way. It gives me many ideas on how I should write my paper. Even though Law and Society Review is written in 1991, its main idea can still lead me to new cases. I think it is a great resource!

Brockway, James. “Death Penalty Focus : Gender Bias and the Death Penalty." Death                              Penalty Focus : Gender Bias and the Death Penalty. 2 Mar. 2011. Web. 18 May 2016.

James talks about how the relationship between gender bias and the death penalty, and he uses the research from Steven Shatz who is University of San Francisco Law School professor to explore the issue. I think it is a good resource because it gives me a brand new idea about how I view in gender bias in the death penalty. He study the term of the gender bias and death penalty. Therefore, I think this resource can help me to get start with my literature review. 

STREIB, VICTOR L. Gendering the Death Penalty: Countering Sex Bias in a Masculine                               Sanctuary (2002). Web. 20 May 2016.

The scholar paper Gendering the Death Penalty by Streib Victor is a great resource! He illustrates the data and explains his research. He looks into each cases and compare all the cases. I like how he organize his data because it clearly stands out his point of view and facts about gender bias. Victor discuss in many areas and situations about gender bias in death penalty. I think his paper can help me to write my research paper!

 

Second Draft:

Introduction

My research topic is Gender in Death Penalty. When I look at the fact sheet table about the issue of death penalty, I notice that compare between women and men, there is less women been putted in death row. I argue that the reasons why there are less women been putted in execution. And also, It is important because people face the question that women and men get treat the same way (punishment) when they are in the same situation, and does the death penalty is fair in the case of gender difference. The major issue that I will be talk about are the amount of women and men who been putted in death row, and the general background reasons that less women get executed.

I think my topic is difficult to talk about because there are so many different cases I need to look into it; however, there are many research datas in history that support my point of view. There are four areas that I am going to be discuss in literature review: early female cases in executions, modern female cases in executions, mitigating female circumstances in death penalty status, and the jury in death penalty sentences. When I look it online, I found the website called Death Penalty Information Center. It provides me many information and history datas. I see the research since 1973 to 2012, there are totals 8375 people be put in death sentence and only 178 are women. (Death Penalty Information Center, 2012) The research proves that the argument that gender bias is exist. I am not going to stand on any side, and I will provide both side ideas of should there be a gender bias in death sentence.

Literature Review

My research topic is gender bias in the death sentences. I  four areas : early female executions, current female executions, the circumstances in death penalty status, and selecting the jury in death sentences.

Early Female Cases in Executions

Comparing the early practice of executions to the modern executions, there is less female be putted in death row today. There is less than three percent of female executions in the beginning of the American Colonial period. The data show  that females hold 4.3 percent in all the execution in pre-1900, and there is only 0.6 percent females in all the execution in post-1900 executions. Since 1900, there have twenty states got female executions. And there are less and less states were having female executions start from pre-1500. It reduced to only five states are still having female executions in 1970: Arkansas, Florida, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Texas. In the data result, we clearly see that there is limited female cases in America Death Penalty system. (Victor, 2002)

Modern Female Cases in Executions

There are many female got executed because of the reason of slaves and witches in history, so people will want to understand the reason of current female execution cases.

In 2000, Christina Marie Riggs is the women got executed in Arkansas on May 2. She is the first women got executed in Arkansas since 1868. She killed her two kids and tried to suicide with  potassium chloride, which is a drug that can be use in lethal injection, but she failed on killing herself. In 2001, Wanda Jean Allen got executed in Oklahoma on January 11. She is the first black women got executed since 1953 in America. She killed her lesbian lover. However, she has been argued about being an mental retard by showing her IQ with the score of sixty-nine. (Victor, 2002) Most of the cases in modern female execution are about killing their husbands, kids, lovers. The female cases can be easily focus on national or international report or news. And also, because of the rare female cases in current execution, people cannot be rash to make any decisions.

Mitigating Female Circumstances in Death Penalty Status

There is a mitigating female circumstances in death penalty. The defendant who is trying to defend the murder get mitigated by being executed. The juries need to first decide whether the case is suitable to put into death sentence or not. And then, they have to think the crime’s circumstances and background information to see the murder need to get executed or life in prison. However, when the jury look at the circumstances, the gender bias is going to be role it. The common mitigating circumstance is the murder killing victim under emotional disturbance. (Elizabeth, 1991) In California state and Ohio state both are the mitigator by setting the common mitigating circumstance. The jury can also have the emotional disturbance between female and male (Victor, 2002). When we look at the cases, we can see that there are more female killed the victim under emotional disturbance than the male did.

The Jury in Death Penalty Sentences

The jury have to be neutral to be putted the murder in the death sentences. And there is a  prospective juror’s in the Supreme Courts in United States. Even though the jury need to read the oath that saying they will be balance in cases, unintentionally, there is a gender bias in Supreme Court. It can depend on the jury’s background: their viewpoint on the role of male and female, they should give mercy or not, the murder is going to commit murder again in future or not. In addition, the jury need to sign the certificate by showing they are not on any side of male or female (Death Penalty Informative Center 2012).

Analysis of the Issue

I think that the gender bias is difficult to avoid. In the literature review, we understand that even though jury read the oath or sign the certificate, the fact that there is less case of female execution compared to male. In my opinion, there is always not balance in gender bias because I understand that there are stereotypes that people already stuck in their mind. I set up the four sections in the literature review, and all of the sections can lead people get more understanding of the gender bias in death penalty.

We can know that there is less female executions in the history. There is only 178 females out of 8375 total offenders got executed since 1973 to 2012. The big amount of total, but only few of the cases are female. In the scholarly paper Gendering the Death Penalty: Countering Sex Bias in a Masculine Sanctuary, professor Victor L. Streib talks about there are mostly case of witches and slaves in female execution in the history. In modern day, female who get executed because they killed their lover, children, husband. It tells point that different timeline, the viewpoint and reasons of jury or people can change on female execution (Victor, 2002).

Even though people think that the gender bias is unfair; however, there are many facts proves the gender bias will keep existing in future. We know that there is less female criminal than male, and male criminal is usually more violences than the female. And also, because it is rare that female be put in death row, so the news, people, jury will be more focus on the cases. It makes the jury become more careful in female trial. In the ideas of stereotype can easily play in the trial: female is weak and need male to protect, male is strong and strict. When jury is looking through mitigating cases, they are can easily be gender bias their own viewpoint. It is difficult for juries to not avoid the gender bias in the female trial.

I learned that gender bias can never be disappear. When we look at the mitigating circumstance, there is the state law that saying the murder get mitigate under emotional disturbance. And most of the female cases is the female murder kill victim under emotional disturbance. It seem like the law that protect female from execution. I also surprise by the female execution data in history. Before I have do this research, I never notice that gender bias is seriously issue in America. I believe that there were many female crimes in the world that murder someone; however, there are not many of them been putted into death row.

Conclusion

In the result, I think my research topic of gender bias is an difficult issue that people can never solve the problems, and it is also a judicial problem. In critical way to look at this issue, there is no balance in the female trial because the stereotype of women already stuck in people’s mind. The reason I want to talk about the gender bias is to make people around me to understand the issue better. The fact that more people talk about the issue, more people care about it. And another reason people should care about this topic because we are always trying to find the balance in the court. People should matter in each life, and not just care about gender differences; therefore, jury should look more at the cases itself and make fair decisions.

Bibliography

“What’s New." DPIC. Web. 16 May 2016.

Death Penalty Informative Center is a really great resource. It contains many unbiased informations, and also it is a trustworthy website! It has data that I can easily understand how gender bias in the death penalty. This website not only helps me to look into cases but also gives me more knowledges about death penalty argument. I think the website can lead me to write a good paper by providing many information and data from history. It is a useful resource.

Rapaport, Elizabeth. Law and Society Review. Web. 1991

http://dspace.unm.edu/bitstream/handle/1928/20497/Rapaport-%20Death%20penalty %20and%20Gender%20Disc.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Law and Society Review is a scholar paper by Rapport, Elizabeth. She demonstrates the process of death penalty and how the gender bias appear in it. The paper is well organize and gives me a better understanding on my topic. I think her research can help me to do my literature review because she explains the each term in a easy way. It gives me many ideas on how I should write my paper. Even though Law and Society Review is written in 1991, its main idea can still lead me to new cases. I think it is a great resource!

Brockway, James. “Death Penalty Focus : Gender Bias and the Death Penalty." Death Penalty Focus : Gender Bias and the Death Penalty. 2 Mar. 2011. Web. 18 May 2016.

James talks about how the relationship between gender bias and the death penalty, and he uses the research from Steven Shatz who is University of San Francisco Law School professor to explore the issue. I think it is a good resource because it gives me a brand new idea about how I view in gender bias in the death penalty. He study the term of the gender bias and death penalty. Therefore, I think this resource can help me to get start with my literature review. 

STREIB, VICTOR L. Gendering the Death Penalty: Countering Sex Bias in a Masculine Sanctuary (2002). Web. 20 May 2016.

The scholar paper Gendering the Death Penalty by Streib Victor is a great resource! He illustrates the data and explains his research. He looks into each cases and compare all the cases. I like how he organize his data because it clearly stands out his point of view and facts about gender bias. Victor discuss in many areas and situations about gender bias in death penalty. I think his paper can help me to write my research paper!

First Draft:

Research Proposal 

My research topic is Gender in Death Penalty. When I look at the fact sheet table about the issue of death penalty, I notice that compare between women and men, there is less women been putted in death row. I am arguing that the reasons why there are less women been putted in execution. And also, It is important because people face the question that do women and men get treat the same way (punishment) when they are in the same situation, and does the death penalty is fair in the case of gender difference. The major issue that I will be talk about are the amount of women and men who been putted in death row, and the general background reasons that less women get executed.

I think my topic is difficult to talk about because there are so many different cases I need to look into it; however, there are many research data in history that I support my point of view. There are three arguments that I am going to be discuss: stereotype of women, women commit less murders compared to men, and different circumstances that women and men are facing. When I look it online, I find the website called Death Penalty Information Center. It provide me many information and history datas. I see the research since 1973 to 2012, there are totals 8375 people be put in death sentence and only 178 are women. The research proves that the argument that gender bias is exist. I am not going to stand on any side, and I will provide both side ideas of should there be a gender bias in death sentence.

Literature Review

My research topic is gender bias in the death sentences. I broke down into four sections to explain the fact: early female executions, current female executions, the circumstances in death penalty status, and selecting the jury in death sentences.

Early Female Cases in Executions

Comparing the early practice of executions to the modern executions, there is less female be putted in death row today. There is less than three percent of female executions in the beginning of the American Colonial period. The data show  that females hold 4.3 percent in all the execution in pre-1900, and there is only 0.6 percent females in all the execution in post-1900 executions. Since 1900, there have twenty states got female executions. And there are less and less states were having female executions start from pre-1500. It reduced to only five states are still having female executions in 1970: Arkansas, Florida, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Texas. In the data result, we clearly see that there is limited female cases in America Death Penalty system. (Victor, 2002)

Modern Female Cases in Executions

There are many female got executed because of the reason of slaves and witches in history, so people will want to understand the reason of current female execution cases.

In 2000, Christina Marie Riggs is the women got executed in Arkansas on May 2. She is the first women got executed in Arkansas since 1868. She killed her two kids and tried to suicide with  potassium chloride, which is a drug that can be use in lethal injection, but she failed on killing herself. In 2001, Wanda Jean Allen got executed in Oklahoma on January 11. She is the first black women got executed since 1953 in America. She killed her lesbian lover. However, she has been argued about being an mental retard by showing her IQ with the score of sixty-nine. (Victor 2002) Most of the cases in modern female execution are about killing their husbands, kids, lovers. The female cases can be easily focus on national or international report or news. And also, because of the rare female cases in current execution, people cannot be rash to make any decisions.

Mitigating Female Circumstances in Death Penalty Status

There is a mitigating female circumstances in death penalty. The defendant who is trying to defend the murder get mitigated by being executed. The juries need to first decide whether the case is suitable to put into death sentence or not. And then, they have to think the crime’s circumstances and background information to see the murder need to get executed or life in prison. However, when the jury look at the circumstances, the gender bias is going to be role it. The common mitigating circumstance is the murder killing victim under emotional disturbance. In California state and Ohio state both are the mitigator by setting the common mitigating circumstance. The jury can also have the emotional disturbance between female and male. When we look at the cases, we can see that there are more female killed the victim under emotional disturbance than the male did.

The Jury in Death Penalty Sentences

The jury have to be neutral to be putted the murder in the death sentences. And there is a  prospective juror’s in the Supreme Courts in United States. Even though the jury need to read the oath that saying they will be balance in cases, unintentionally, there is a gender bias in Supreme Court. It can depend on the jury’s background: their viewpoint on the role of male and female, they should give mercy or not, the murder is going to commit murder again in future or not. In addition, the jury need to sign the certificate by showing they are not on any side of male or female.  

Analysis of the Issue

I think that the gender bias is difficult to avoid. In the literature review, we understand that even though jury read the oath or sign the certificate, the fact that there is less case of female execution compared to male. In my opinion, there is always not balance in gender bias because I understand that there are stereotypes that people already stuck in their mind. I set up the four sections in the literature review, and all of the sections can lead people get more understanding of the gender bias in death penalty.

We can know that there is less female executions in the history. There is only 178 females out of 8375 total offenders got executed since 1973 to 2012. The big amount of total, but only few of the cases are female. In the scholarly paper Gendering the Death Penalty: Countering Sex Bias in a Masculine Sanctuary, professor Victor L. Streib talks about there are mostly case of witches and slaves in female execution in the history. In modern day, female who get executed because they killed their lover, children, husband. It tells point that different timeline, the viewpoint and reasons of jury or people can change on female execution.

Even though people think that the gender bias is unfair; however, there are many facts proves the gender bias will keep existing in future. We know that there is less female criminal than male, and male criminal is usually more violences than the female. And also, because it is rare that female be put in death row, so the news, people, jury will be more focus on the cases. It makes the jury become more careful in female trial. In the ideas of stereotype can easily play in the trial: female is weak and need male to protect, male is strong and strict. When jury is looking through mitigating cases, they are can easily be gender bias their own viewpoint. It is difficult for juries to not avoid the gender bias in the female trial.

I learned that gender bias can never be disappear. When we look at the mitigating circumstance, there is the state law that saying the murder get mitigate under emotional disturbance. And most of the female cases is the female murder kill victim under emotional disturbance. It seem like the law that protect female from execution. I also surprise by the female execution data in history. Before I have do this research, I never notice that gender bias is seriously issue in America. I believe that there were many female crimes in the world that murder someone; however, there are not many of them been putted into death row.

In the result, I think my research topic of gender bias is an difficult issue that people can never solve the problems, and it is also a judicial problem. In critical way to look at this issue, there is no balance in the female trial. I think people should care about this topic because we are always trying to find the balance in the court. People should matter in each life, and not just care about the gender difference. And also, jury should look more at the cases itself.

Bibliography

“What’s New." DPIC. Web. 16 May 2016.

Rapaport, Elizabeth. Law and Society Review. Web.

http://dspace.unm.edu/bitstream/handle/1928/20497/Rapaport-%20Death%20penalty %20and%20Gender%20Disc.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Brockway, James. “Death Penalty Focus : Gender Bias and the Death Penalty." Death Penalty Focus : Gender Bias and the Death Penalty. 2 Mar. 2011. Web. 18 May 2016.

STREIB, VICTOR L. Gendering the Death Penalty: Countering Sex Bias in a Masculine Sanctuary (2002). Web. 20 May 2016.

 

Review

Second Draft:

Review- The Death Penalty Information Center

The Death Penalty Information Center is organization website that informs people about what the death penalty is. The website is for students or people who want to know more about death penalty issues. Importantly the website does not take any position,; it just just informs people about death penalty. People can recognize the organization in the public media also because it is a national non-profit group. There are three reasons that I think everyone should use this website: the web design is easy for people to look-up what they need; it includes many scholar articles, news, and images that  prove the website is trustworthy; and it keeps updating new information.

The website is designed in a simple and easy way for people to browse information. It has eight sections: home, issues, resources, facts, reports, about, press, donate. People can easily and quickly find the information they need on the website. In the section of issues, they post different articles and news about issues that people are currently discussing. For example, is the costs of the death penalty cheaper than life in jail or can death penalty deter future crime. In the resources section, it proves many useful resources about death penalty. It shows some articles, books, public opinion, relates website…etc for people who are interested to find more information. The website also posts the facts about death penalty. It sets up different categories, and each category is including many facts. For instances: the website uses the facts about legislation, law reviews, states opinion to show the category: Crimes Punishable by the Death Penalty. Death Penalty Informative Center uses the website provides people an easy way to find the information about death penalty.

The website is trustworthy. In the section of reports, you can see the organization releases many books. For example, Battle Scars: Military Veterans and the Death Penalty is one of the book released by Death Penalty Information Center. As you can notice that the website does not show any advertisements, and they clarify their money comes from the donations. In the about section, it introduces the organization of Death Penalty Information Center. It shows their recent awards, and they can find the organization in the media. We can know the state and board of directors who is working this organization and understand a little background information about each person. The website shows the person or the media that support their organization. The most persuasive point is it includes the Death Penalty Information Center’s address and proves the existence of the organization. All the details background information about the organization can show that the website is believable and credible.

The website has the newest information about death penalty. The organization updates the news everyday, and it shows them in the home pages. The idea of putting the news in the homepage can let people directly check on the new things easily and fast. The website also includes fact sheet, upcoming executions, execution database, and death penalty information by state. In the fact sheet uses the tables and charts to interpret the data offered. It not only includes the new information, but also compares the old data with the new information. All the data information is persuasive and helpful. The upcoming execution has updating the new execution schedule. The surprising fact that it puts the future year execution schedule. In the execution database, it can let people to find people’s name, year, age at execution, state, gender…etc, any details that can lead you find the case. It also shows that the recently cases and similarly cases. The state by state database section helps  people  understand the execution process  in each state. It tells you all the information about the state: new method of the execution of the state or the innocent person from the death row. It is important to let people know that the new information about death penalty because it is a controversial issue that people can never avoid.

Overall, I think the website is persuasive and helpful. The easy design of the website, it shows the newest information, and it is trustworthy are the facts that showing the people can learn and use the information from the website. However, there is always an improve space for the website. The website contains many information about United States; therefore, I am hoping that it can include some international cases or compare the different method of death penalty between other countries to United States. It can helps people to understand the death penalty issues more easily but deeply.

Reference:

“What’s New." DPIC. Web. 16 May 2016.

First Draft:

Review- The Death Penalty Information Center

The Death Penalty Information Center is organization website that informs people what death penalty is. The website is for students or people who wants to know more about death penalty issues. The important fact that the website does not stand on any position, and it just inform people the information about death penalty. People can recognize the organization in the public media also because it is a national non-profit group. There are three ideas that I think everyone should use this website: the web design is easy for people to look what they need, It includes many scholar articles, news, and images that can proves the website is trustworthy, and it keep updating new information.

The website is designed in a simple and easy way for people to browse information. In the website, it has eight sections: home, issues, resources, facts, reports, about, press, donate. People can easily and quickly find the information they need in the website. In the section of issues, they post different articles and news about issues that people are currently worry about. For examples, is the costs of death penalty cheaper than life in jail or can death penalty deterrences people. In the resources section, it proves many useful resources about death penalty. It shows some articles, books, public opinion, relates website…etc for people who is interested to find more information. The website also posts the facts about death penalty. It sets up different categories, and each categories is including many facts. For instances: the website uses the facts about legislation, law reviews, states opinion to show the category: Crimes Punishable by the Death Penalty. Death Penalty Informative Center uses the website provides people an easy way to find the information about death penalty.

The website is trustworthy. In the section of reports, you can see the organization releases many books. For example, Battle Scars: Military Veterans and the Death Penalty is one of the book released by Death Penalty Information Center. As you can notice that the website does not show any advertisements, and they clarify their money is come from the donation. In the about section, it introduces the organization of Death Penalty Information Center. It shows their recent awards, and they can find the organization in the media. We can know the state and board of directors who is working this organization and understand a little background information about each person. The website shows the person or the media that support their organization. The most persuasive point is it puts down the Death Penalty Information Center’s address and proves the existence of the organization. All the details background information about the organization can show that the website is believable and credible.

The website has the newest information about death penalty. The organization update the news everyday, and it shows them in the home pages. The ideas of putting the news in the homepage can let people directly check on the new things easy and fast. The website also illustrates fact sheet, upcoming executions, execution database, and death penalty information by state. In the fact sheet, it uses the tables and charts to interpret the datas information. It not only includes the new information, but also compare the old data with the new information. All the data information is persuasive and helpful. The upcoming execution has updating the new execution schedule. The surprising fact that it puts the future year execution schedule. In the execution database, it can let people to find people’s name, year, age at execution, state, gender…etc, any details that can lead you find the case. It also shows that the recently cases and similarly cases. The state by state database section let people to understand the execution happen in each state. It tells you all the information about the state: new method of the execution of the state or the innocent person from the death row. It is important to let people know that the new information about death penalty because it is an argument issue that people can never avoid.

Overall, I think the website is persuasive and helpful. The easy design of the website, it shows the newest information, and it is trustworthy are the facts that showing the people can learn and use the information from the website. However, there is always an improve space for the website. The website contains many information about United States; therefore, I am hoping that it can include some international cases or compare the different method of death penalty between other countries to United States. It can helps people to understand the death penalty issues more easily but deeply.

Reference:

“What’s New." DPIC. Web. 16 May 2016.

Review Reflection:

When I write the review reflection paper, I think I learn to observe detail information from the website. I always think that writing a review is a fun things to do. I like to leave my review on the website like yelp! However, I found out it is a little bit difficult to write an review paper. Before I do the review paper, I organized the information and make it simple to understand it. Because I think review is the comment that need to be easy to understand for everyone. The reason I pick Death Penalty Informative Center because I think this organization website is really well organize! When I was doing my informative paper, it provides all the information I want! I can easily observe the detail issues! And also, the website contains many background informations that I know the organization is real. I even went online to google search the existence of the organization. They provides the address and pictures! The website has no advertisement, so I know that the website is in fact trustworthy!

I do not have a big difficulty of doing the paper because I put mostly my opinion in the paper. However, my small problem on this paper is my grammar mistake. I did the same things as I did on the previous paper. I separated each line, and corrected my sentence one by one. It is a hard work because I still confused many grammar mistakes. I think I enjoy writing the review paper! It is more fun compare to other paper. For future, I hope all the students can do the review paper, they can not only improve their writing skill but also help them to write a good review in yelp or any website!

Informative Article

Second Draft

Capital Punishment – Execution of One’s Life

In March 28, there is 4-year-old girl was killed by a mentality disorder man in Taiwan. A 33 year-old unemployed man who think that he can change his life by killing a kid. And he target the girl when he saw the girl was falling down on the street with her bicycle. The girl’s mother first thought the murderer was going to help the kid to pick up the bicycle, but she realized that he was killing her daughter, and she could not stop him because the murderer was too strong. The girl’s mother was screaming to ask for help, but it was too late. According to the police, the murderer used the cleaver to decapitated the girl.

The case impacted the society and caused the chaos. Parents were in a panic about the society was no longer safe for their kids. Also people was feeling angry to the murderer. There were many people who support the capital punishment stood out and claimed that capital punishment should be exist for the safety of our society. Even though the girl’s mother did not want the case became the issue of capital punishment, people’s emotion still brought the debate of capital punishment.

What is Capital Punishment?

Capital Punishment is the punishment of an execution that is decided by the Supreme Court, and it is also known as the death penalty. The punishment can deter people from their criminal action, and it is also an act of retribution. There are many countries already abolished the Capital Punishment due to the global moratorium on death penalty, which is a retentionist country trying to abolish the death penalty; however, there are still over half of the world’s populations live in the country that is using Capital Punishment. Therefore, it is an issue that people can not stop debating as whether it should be abolished or not.

Debate of Capital Punishment: Pro and Con

The two reasons that Capital Punishment should be abolished: the punishment is seeking for revenge, and it has the possibility of killing innocent people.

There are many people argue that Capital Punishment is retribution for the victim’s family or friends. However, in the book of The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs shows that the idea of “eye for an eye” is not going to help people recover from losing their loves. Justice Marshall who argue the Capital Punishment is against the Constitution in United State, Eighth Amendment. “Retaliation, vengeance, and retribution have been roundly condemned as intolerable aspirations for a government in a free society.” People should understand that revenge is not the way of healing.

There is possibility of killing innocent people by putting people into Capital Punishment, and it has no chance to get people’s live back. In the article Should states impose moratoriums on executions?, it shows that there is the possibility of jury makes the mistake and puts the person into death penalty. The article demonstrates that there were 119 innocent people got release from death penalty from 1972. According to Richard Dieter, the center’s executive director, mentions that the problem of Capital Punishment is sentenced innocent people to death or sometimes is close to being executed. In the article, it proves that there is innocent people get put in death, and people can understand that once people being executed, there is no way to fix the mistake.

There are two reasons that Capital Punishment should not be abolished: the punishment is cheaper for people, and it is fair on criminal justice.

Capital Punishment can cost less than life in prison. According to the University of California Santa Barbara professor Edwin H. Sutherland, “It is not cheaper to keep a criminal confined, because most of the time he will appeal just as much causing as many costs as a convict under death sentence. Being alive and having nothing better to do, he will spend his time in prison conceiving of ever-new habeas corpus petitions, which being unlimited, in effect cannot be rejected as res judicata. The cost is higher." He mentions that it is more expensive if people keep staying in the prison because they will receive unlimited petitions. People do not want their tax money going to prisoners who killed other people.

Capital Punishment can deter the motivation to kill people. George W. Bush, 43rd President of the United States had a debate, arguing about the question “Do both of you believe that the death penalty actually deters crime?" at Washington University. He claimed that he supports death penalty is not because of revenge, but it can deter people from committing murder and save people’s lives. His response stands that Capital Punishment can prevent the murder to be happen in future.

References:

Izadi, Elahe. “4-year-old Girl’s Decapitation in Taiwan Sparks Outrage and Death Penalty           Debate." Washington Post. The Washington Post, 29 Mar. 2016. Web. 25 Apr. 2016.

“Moratorium." International Commission against the Death Penalty RSS. 2016. Web. 25               Apr. 2016.

Jost, Kenneth. “Death Penalty Controversies." CQ Researcher 23 Sept. 2005: 785-808.                  Web. 25 Apr. 2016.

Vollum, Scott, Del Carmen Rolando V., Durant Frantzen, Claudia San Miguel, and Kelly                Cheeseman. The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs.        2014. Print.

Sutherland, Edwin Hardin, and Donald R. Cressey. Criminology. Philadelphia: Lippincott,          1974. Print.

Jones, Rodger. “Responding to the Gentleman from Flower Mound on the Death Penalty."          The Dallas Morning News. 2013. Web. 25 Apr. 2016.

Reflection

I think informative paper is an interesting writing project. The reason made me chose the topic because I saw a murderer kill a four years old girl in Taiwan. I was so mad and disappoint of our society, and I thought about how capital punishment works in our world. When I did many research about the news, and looked at the detail information about the process of what happened. After summarizing the news, I got to know the my desire of exploring this topic. I knew the general idea about what capital punishment is before I write the paper, but I understood better by looking up the resources about the topic.

I was struggling about how to find the academic article (scholar articles, books), and my friend taught me how to do the school website resource (library). I found the website called CQ Researcher, and the website contained many academic articles that easy for students to look it up online. The website helped me to complete works more successfully. The problems I faced about academic resource were understanding articles and paraphrasing. I couldn’t understand the scholar article easily, I had to read it many times to know what the author trying to express. However, when I tried to do the paraphrasing, it got more complicated and harder because I didn’t understand the details in the articles. A article can take me more than an hour to understand it, and I put many effort on understanding the articles and well paraphrasing. On the other side, the scholar articles always used the difficult words. Therefore, when I do the paraphrasing, I can easily replace the difficult words to simple words.

I chose to do the small title by doing pro and cons because I realized that many people are arguing the issue about the existence of capital punishment. There were many perspectives between this issues that I never thought about it. After looking up the argument information about capital punishment, it got me more harder to easily decide which side I should stand on. When I tried to find the non-academic resources (news), I found out that is much more easier than academic resources. I can easily post many examples and proves the statement; however, I realized that I should use more academic articles rather than non-academic resource. Because academic resources can always convince the audiences and stand out the points more clearly. Even though non-academic resources can easily be found, academic resources are more helpful in the informative paper.

By doing this informative paper, I learned not only how to write the informative paper, but also learned about the information about my topic. I thought my another problem was on grammar and the clarity on my sentences. However, I can keep practicing my grammar by doing more paper, so I can improve more and more from each paper. And I also use the method of checking my grammar and sentence by separated my sentences on by one!

First Draft

What is Capital Punishment?

Capital Punishment is the punishment of an execution that decide by supreme court, and it can also known as death penalty. It is an argument issue that people can not stop debating whether it should be abolished or not. There are three reasons that Capital Punishment should not be abolished: for the safety of the community, it is cheaper for people, it is fair on criminal justice.

Should Capital Punishment not be Abolished?

For the safety of the community, Capital Punishment should not be abolished. Recently, there is a murder randomly killed a four year-old girl on the street with the knife. The murder claims that killing a kid is for redirection of his life. The case of “4-year-old girl beheaded in Taiwan knife attack.” makes the people anger and scar. It makes all the parents will not want to bring their kids out, and people worry that  the street or their home are no longer save. It brings the chaos to the society.

Capital Punishment can cost less than the life in prison. According to the University of California Santa Barbara professor Edwin H. Sutherland, PhD,  “It is not cheaper to keep a criminal confined, because most of the time he will appeal just as much causing as many costs as a convict under death sentence. Being alive and having nothing better to do, he will spend his time in prison conceiving of ever-new habeas corpus petitions, which being unlimited, in effect cannot be rejected as res judicata. The cost is higher." He mentions that it is more expensive if the people keep staying in the prison because they will receive unlimit petitions. People does not want their tax going to the prisoner who killed other.

Capital Punishment can deterrence the motivation of killing people. George W. Bush, 43rd President of the United States had a debate argue about the question “Do both of you believe that the death penalty actually deters crime?" at the Washington University, “I do, that’s the only reason to be for it. I don’t think you should support the death penalty to seek revenge. I don’t think that’s right. I think the reason to support the death penalty is because it saves other people’s lives." He declares that death penalty can deterrence the people to kill people, and it can save people’s live.

Response Paper

Third Draft

Response Paper

In the paper of Most difficult problems for Chinese students in American Universities, Zhao Feng describes the Challenge that Chinese students face in American Universities, and it also helps Chinese students to understand their problems and gives them some suggestions. Zhao Feng, who is a Chinese student from Ohio State University, wrote this paper. His writing demonstrates that there are more and more Chinese students come to American Universities for better education, and they have become the biggest group of foreign students in America. Zhao Feng also offers three categories for Chinese students to improve their life in American Universities: motivation, language, and culture.I think this paper can actually help the Chinese students to find out their problems and improve their life in American Universities. Being an international student in American University, I understand all the difficulties that author has mentioned about, and I fully agree motivation, language, and culture are the main reasons that causing Chinese students have more problems in school. If the Chinese students can meet the three main challenges, they can be successful in their American Universitiy life (Zhang).

SUMMARY OF ZHANG ARTICLE PARAGRAPH

The three categories can lead Chinese students to make better life in American Universities. According to Zhang, there are three challenges that can lead Chinese students to make better life in American Universities. Firstly, Chinese students need to have a strong motivation when they are learning new things. Zhao Feng demonstrates the facts that students need to be outgoing and be willing to join more activities and organizations, so they can live in a happier life in school; therefore, it can give them motivation to learn a good life in America. Secondly, Chinese students need to have more better English skills enable to help them live in America. They should be confident in learning to speak English and knowing how to use the campus’ resources. Thirdly, Chinese students have to be willing to adapt to American culture. There are many differences between Chinese and American culture. If students want to fit into American University, they will need to experience many background and logic difficulties. When Chinese face the difficulties in American Universities, they can look up this paper, and it helps them to solve their problem (Zhang).

MY OWN EXPERIENCE—how being willing to get out there and socialize helped me

I can fully agree with Zhao Feng’s ideas because I had been through my difficulties of being international student. When I first came to America, I had no motivation of learning English because I felt lonely in the school. My homestay mother started to make me join in the school clubs and organizations, I became more and more outgoing and happier. I made many new American friends, so I got some motivations to learn English in order to communicate with them. I also wanted to learn many things about American culture because I wanted to know what my friends were talking about, and I wanted to be able to discuss with them. I tried to learn their culture about music, food, thinking, and life. After I was willing to open my mind to adapt to American culture, I had more friends and I enjoyed my life in America.

MY OWN EXPERIENCE DEALING WITH THE DIFFERENT TEACHING AND LEARNING STYLES

When the author mentioned about how Chinese students tended to ask questions with their classmate rather asked the questions to their professors, I was absolutely agree this truth statement because I was facing the same problems. There was one time I tried to do my Semantics homework, my friends and I took five hours to understand one scenario. When we went to ask professor for help, and we only used twenty minutes to understand the problem; therefore, I realized that how important I should directly go ask the questions to professors or teacher assistants instead of our classmates, and it can be more easier and quicker.

In the result, I think that the paper of Most difficult problems for Chinese students in American Universities is well recommended for all the international students because it makes the international students to see their problems. It also can lead and suggest students the way to survive in American Universities. I like when the author lists out the specific examples for students because it gets me the better understand of my problems. I realize the important of using the school resources and speaking with the native speaker. When I read this paper again and again, I notice the author discussed many issues including the test for international students need to take or the lonely feeling of study abroad. All the details create an understanding bridge between the author and international students.Therefore, I think international students can learn many from this paper.

Second Draft

Response Paper

In the paper of Most difficult problems for Chinese students in American Universities, Zhao Feng describes the Challenge that Chinese students face in American Universities, and it also helps Chinese students to understand their problems and gives them some suggestions.

The paper was written by the Chinese student, Zhao Feng, who is from Ohio State University. His writing demonstrates that there are more and more Chinese students come to American Universities for better education, and they have became the biggest group of foreign student in America. Zhao Feng also offers three categories for Chinese students to improve their life in American Universities: motivation, language, and culture.I think this paper can actually help the Chinese students to find out their problems and improve their life in American Universities. Being an international student in American University, I understand all the difficulties that author has mentioned about, and I fully agree motivation, language, and culture are the main reasons that causing Chinese students have more problems in school. If the Chinese students can meet the three main challenges, they can be successful in their American Universities’ life (Zhang).

SUMMARY OF ZHANG ARTICLE PARAGRAPH

The three categories can lead Chinese students to make better life in American Universities. According to Zhang, there are three challenges that can lead Chinese students to make better life in American Universities. Firstly, Chinese students need to have a strong motivation when they are learning new things. Zhao Feng demonstrates the facts that students should be outgoing and be willing to join more activities and organizations, so they can live in more happier life in school; therefore, it can give them motivation to learn a good life in America. Secondly, Chinese students need to have more better English skills enable to help them live in America. They should be confident of learning speaking English and knowing how to use the campus’ resources. Thirdly, Chinese students have to be willing to adapt to American culture. There are many differences between Chinese and American culture. If students want to fit into American University, they will need to experience many background and logic difficulties. When Chinese face the difficulties in American Universities, they can look up this paper, and it helps them to solve their problem (Zhang).

MY OWN EXPERIENCE—how being willing to get out there and socialize helped me

I can fully agree with Zhao Feng’s ideas because I had been through my difficulties of being international student. When I first came to America, I had no motivation of learning English because I felt lonely in the school. My homestay mother started to make me join in the school clubs and organizations, I became more and more outgoing and happier. I made many new American friends, so I got some motivations to learn English in order to communicate with them. I also wanted to learn many things about American culture because I wanted to know what my friends were talking about, and I wanted to be able to discuss with them. I tried to learn their culture about music, food, thinking, and life. After I was willing to open my mind to adapt to American culture, I had more friends and I enjoyed my life in America.

MY OWN EXPERIENCE DEALING WITH THE DIFFERENT TEACHING AND LEARNING STYLES

When the author mentioned about how Chinese students tended to ask questions with their classmate rather asked the questions to their professors, I was absolutely agree this truth statement because I was facing the same problems. There was one time I tried to do my Semantics homework, my friends and I took five hours to understand one scenario. When we went to ask professor for help, and we only used twenty minutes to understand the problem; therefore, I realized that how important I should directly go ask the questions to professors or teacher assistants instead of our classmates, and it can be more easier and quicker.

In the result, I think that the paper of Most difficult problems for Chinese students in American Universities is well recommend for all the international students because it makes the international students to see their problems. It also can lead and suggest students the way to survive in American Universities. I like when the author lists out the specific examples for students because it gets me the better understand of my problems. I realize the importance of using the school resources and speaking with the native speaker. When I read this paper again and again, I notice the author gives many detail information: the test for international students need to take or the lonely feeling of study abroad. All the details create an understanding bridge between the author and international students.Therefore, I think international students can learn many from this paper.

First Draft

Response Paper

In the paper of Most difficult problems for Chinese students in American Universities, it describes the reasons that Chinese students face the problems in American Universities; on the other hand, it also help Chinese students to see their problems and to give them some suggestions. The paper is written by the Chinese students, Zhang, who is from The Ohio State University, and his writing points out that there are more Chinese students come to American Universities for better education, and they have become the biggest group of foreign student in America. He also lists out three categories for Chinese students to improve or to help their life in American Universities: motivation, language, and culture.

The three categories can lead Chinese students to make better life in American Universities. Firstly, Chinese students need to have a strong motivation when they are learning new things. The writing demonstrates the facts that students should be outgoing and be willing to join more activities and organizations, so they can live in more happier life in school; therefore, it can give them more motivated to learn a good life in America. Secondly, Chinese students need to have more better English skills enable to help them live in America. They should be confident of learning speaking English and knowing how to use the campus’ resources. Thirdly, Chinese students have to be willing to adapt American culture. There are many differences between Chinese and American culture; however, if student wants to live in good life in American Universities, they have to make themselves fit into the culture first. When Chinese face the difficulties in American Universities, they can look up this paper, and it helps them to solve their problem.

I think the paper can actually help the Chinese students to find out their problems and improve their life in American Universities. Being an international student in American University, I understand all the difficulties that author have mentions about, and I fully agree motivation, language, and culture are the main reasons that causing Chinese students have more problems in school. However, in the other way of thinking, if the Chinese students can accomplish the three main reason, they can be successful in their American Universities’ life.  

When I first came to America, I had no motivation of learning English because I felt lonely in the school. My homestay mother started to make me join in the school clubs and organizations, I became more and more outgoing and happier. I made many new American friends, so I got some motivations to learn English for communicate with them. I also went learn many things about American culture because I wanted to know what my friends were talking, and I wanted to be able to discuss with them. I tried to learn their culture about music, food, thinking, and life. After I willing to open my mind to adapt in American culture, I found out that I got more friends, and I enjoyed my life in America.

When I see the author mentions about how Chinese students tend to ask questions with their classmate rather ask the questions to their professors, I am absolutely agree this truth statement because I am facing the problems. There is one time I tried to do my Semantics homework, my friends and I took five hours to understand one scenario. When we go ask professor for help, and we only used twenty minutes to understand the problem; therefore, I realized that how important I should directly go ask the questions to professors or teacher assistants instead of our classmates, and it can be more easier and quicker.

In the result, I think that the paper of Most difficult problems for Chinese students in American Universities is well recommend for all the international students because it can lead and suggest students life in American Universities. And also, the author lists out the examples for students to get the better understand of their problems. Therefore, International students can learn many from this paper.

 

Reference:

Zhang, Zhaofeng. “Zhang.4921’s Blog." Zhang4921s Blog. N.p., 13 Sept. 2014. Web. 13 Apr. 2016.

Revision paragraph:

Comparing to writing the response paper, I feel more difficult when I was doing the revision on my paper. Because I was sick on the day of doing the peer review, so I ask my other friends to help me fix my essay. There are many conflicts when my friends were helping me to do the revision. I am facing not only on my grammar problems but also my clarity of my sentences. I feel comfortable when I was writing the response paper because I am writing the story related to myself. Even though I was facing many problems on my grammar or tenses, I still feel confidence on my informations (experiences). I also learned how to write a response paper. I hope my next information article can improve and do better than my response paper. I want to focus more on my grammar and tenses mistakes!